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新疆的職業技能教育培訓工作(2)(中英對照)

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I. Urgent Needs for Education and Training

一、開展教育培訓工作勢在必行
Terrorism and extremism have a long history in Xinjiang. From the early 20th century to the late 1940s, separatist and religious extremist forces, spreading "Pan-Turkism" and "Pan-Islamism", attempted to create a theocratic state they called "East Turkistan" in Xinjiang. In an attempt to split China, such forces advocated religious extremism and carried out a series of terrorist activities. For years religious extremism continued to make inroads into Xinjiang, resulting in incidents of terrorism.
恐怖主義、極端主義在新疆由來已久。20世紀初至40年代末,民族分裂勢力、宗教極端勢力借助"泛突厥主義""泛伊斯蘭主義"思潮,試圖在新疆建立"政教合一"的"東突厥斯坦"國。形形色色的"東突"勢力為了達到分裂中國的目的,鼓吹宗教極端主義,實施了一系列暴力恐怖活動。在此后相當長的一段時間里,宗教極端主義對新疆的滲透從未停止,暴力恐怖活動時有發生。
Since the 1990s, the global spread and aggravation of terrorism and extremism has wrought havoc. Influenced by extremism, terrorist attacks and related incidents have caused heavy casualties and property damage in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Russia, Turkey, Egypt, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, and other countries and regions. World peace is under serious threat, and the future of humanity is overshadowed.
20世紀90年代以來,恐怖主義、極端主義在全球蔓延加劇,給人類社會造成重大災難。美國、英國、法國、德國、西班牙、比利時、俄羅斯、土耳其、埃及、印度、印度尼西亞、新西蘭、斯里蘭卡等世界上許多國家和地區都發生了受極端主義影響的暴力恐怖襲擊案(事)件,造成大量人員傷亡和重大財產損失,嚴重威脅世界和平,給人類社會發展投下陰影。
Between 1990 and the end of 2016, separatists, religious extremists and terrorists plotted and carried out several thousand acts of terrorism such as bombings, assassinations, poisoning, arson, assaults, and riots in Xinjiang. Many innocent people were killed and several hundred police officers died in the line of duty. The property losses incurred were enormous.
據不完全統計,自1990年至2016年年底,民族分裂勢力、宗教極端勢力、暴力恐怖勢力在中國新疆地區策劃實施了數千起爆炸、暗殺、投毒、縱火、襲擊、騷亂、暴亂等系列暴力恐怖案(事)件,造成大量無辜群眾被害,數百名公安民警殉職,財產損失無法估算。
Terrorism and extremism germinate in a complex domestic and international environment. They are rooted in political, economic and cultural factors, and are not specific to particular countries, regions, ethnic groups, religions or social systems. The fight against terrorism and extremism is a global challenge. Over the years, different countries and regions have adopted different measures of preventing and combating terrorism and extremism, based on their respective historical and cultural traditions, their level of social and economic development, and the level of education and employability of their citizens.
恐怖主義、極端主義的產生有著復雜的國際國內背景,受政治、經濟、文化等各方面因素影響,與特定國家、特定地區、特定民族、特定宗教、特定社會制度無關。反恐、去極端化既是世界性課題,也是世界性難題。多年來,一些國家和地區為了有效反恐、去極端化,根據自身實際,積極探索打擊和預防恐怖主義、極端主義的具體路徑和辦法,但由于各自的歷史文化傳統、經濟社會發展水平、公民受教育程度及就業能力狀況等存在差異,采取的辦法和舉措也不盡相同。
For some time, Xinjiang, especially Kashgar Prefecture, Hotan Prefecture, Aksu Prefecture and Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in the south, where religious extremism has had a long and widespread presence, suffered badly from frequent acts of terrorism. Large numbers of people were involved and even more were affected. The scale of the problem posed a serious challenge to China's efforts in fighting terrorism and extremism.
新疆特別是位于南疆的喀什地區、和田地區、克孜勒蘇柯爾克孜自治州、阿克蘇地區等四地州,由于宗教極端主義滲透時間長,影響范圍廣,毒害程度深,暴力恐怖案(事)件在一段時間多發頻發,且涉案人員眾多,影響群體龐大,導致反恐、去極端化形勢嚴峻。
Exploiting people's religious beliefs, extremist forces spread religious extremism through Xinjiang's large religious population, among people who have limited means of communication outside their own communities, limited employment opportunities in farming and animal husbandry, limited sources of information, and limited knowledge of modern science. Deliberately distorting religious doctrines and canons, religious extremists have bound extremism to religion, to religious believers, and to society as a whole, and incited people to overthrow secular governments and establish theocratic states. They deny the concepts and achievements of modern secular civilization, inciting followers to "engage in a holy war and die for their beliefs in order to enter heaven", and injuring and killing those they describe as "pagans" and "renegades". Normal religious activities in Xinjiang have been seriously disrupted, and upstanding religious individuals have been ostracized, persecuted, or killed. For many religious believers, the mental shackles imposed by religious extremism have become unbearable, disturbing their normal life and work. Social and economic development in the region has also suffered as a result.
宗教極端勢力利用信教群眾樸素的宗教感情,借助當地信教人口眾多、對外交流不暢、農牧業就業承載有限、信息閉塞、現代科學知識匱乏等客觀因素,散布宗教極端主義。宗教極端勢力肆意歪曲宗教教義教規,將極端主義與宗教捆綁在一起,與廣大信教群眾捆綁在一起,與社會生活捆綁在一起,鼓動推翻世俗政權,妄圖建立教法統治的國家。宗教極端勢力否定一切世俗觀念和現代文明成果,鼓吹所謂"圣戰殉教進天堂",殘害所謂"異教徒""叛教者",致使當地正常宗教活動遭到嚴重破壞,中道正信的宗教人士受到排斥、迫害,甚至被殺害。因宗教極端主義影響,大量信教群眾被套上了沉重的精神枷鎖,正常生產生活受到嚴重干擾,社會經濟發展受到嚴重制約。
To strengthen their psychological control over religious believers, extremist forces have incited people to boycott the standard spoken and written Chinese language and reject modern science. They act in accordance with fabricated "religious law" and "domestic discipline", and defy the Constitution and state laws. They spread word about a "next life where one's fate is predestined", and deceive religious believers into rejecting the kind of vocational skills training by which they can improve their economic conditions and their capacity for self-development. A large part of the population could not read and write in the standard spoken and written Chinese language, and they had no basic knowledge of the law.
為了強化對信教群眾的精神控制,宗教極端勢力持續煽動信教群眾抵制學習國家通用語言文字,排斥現代科學知識;歪曲炮制所謂"教法、家法",將其作為行為準則,對抗國家憲法法律;鼓吹"來世天定",蠱惑信教群眾拒絕學習掌握就業技能、改善經濟條件、提升自我發展能力。大量群眾不具備掌握國家通用語言文字能力,不具備基本法律知識。
Influenced and controlled by religious extremism, many people have engaged in – or have been instigated, coerced or enticed to engage in – terrorist and extremist activities, but they have not committed serious crimes or inflicted actual harm. It is hard for some people who have been convicted of terrorist or extremist crimes to abandon extremist views, as their minds have been poisoned to the extent of losing reason and the ability to think sensibly about their lives and the law. Without necessary intervention measures it will not be possible for them to cast off the shackles of religious extremism, get back to normal life, and improve their prospects for a better future.
在宗教極端主義的滲透和控制下,許多人參與或者被教唆、脅迫、引誘參與恐怖活動、極端主義活動,但尚屬情節輕微,或未造成實際危害后果;一些人雖因恐怖活動犯罪、極端主義犯罪被定罪處刑,但并未完全脫離宗教極端主義束縛。由于上述人員受宗教極端主義毒害深,喪失了對正常生活和法律界限的理性辨識能力,如果不對他們采取積極干預措施,就不能解除宗教極端主義對他們的桎梏,就無法使他們融入正常的社會生活,就不可能使他們實現個人的更好發展。
Faced with this severe and complex problem, Xinjiang has upheld the principle of addressing both the symptoms and root causes in its fight against terrorism and extremism, by striking hard at serious terrorist crimes, which are limited in number, and by educating and rehabilitating people influenced by religious extremism and involved in minor violations of the law. In accordance with the law, it has established a group of vocational centers to offer systematic education and training in response to a set of urgent needs: to curb frequent terrorist incidents, to eradicate the breeding ground for religious extremism, to help trainees acquire a better education and vocational skills, find employment, and increase their incomes, and most of all, to safeguard social stability and long-term peace in Xinjiang.
面對嚴峻形勢和復雜情況,新疆的反恐、去極端化堅持標本兼治方針,既依法嚴厲打擊少數嚴重暴力恐怖犯罪,又最大限度地教育挽救感染宗教極端主義、有輕微違法犯罪的人員。依法設立教培中心,對學員進行系統的教育培訓,是遏制暴力恐怖案(事)件多發頻發、鏟除宗教極端主義滋生蔓延土壤的迫切需要,也是有效提升學員文化知識水平、掌握勞動技能、促進就業和增加收入的迫切需要,更是實現新疆社會穩定和長治久安的迫切需要。

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deceive [di'si:v]

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vt. 欺騙
vi. 行騙

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property ['prɔpəti]

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n. 財產,所有物,性質,地產,道具

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extremist [iks'tri:mist]

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n. 極端主義者,過激分子

 
controlled [kən'trəuld]

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adj. 受約束的;克制的;受控制的 v. 控制;指揮;

 
response [ri'spɔns]

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n. 回答,響應,反應,答復
n. [宗

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specific [spi'sifik]

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adj. 特殊的,明確的,具有特效的
n. 特

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sensibly ['sensəbli]

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adv. 容易感知地,有常識地,聰明地

 
eradicate [i'rædikeit]

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v. 根除,撲減,根絕

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striking ['straikiŋ]

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adj. 吸引人的,顯著的
n. 打擊

 
havoc ['hævək]

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n. 大破壞,混亂 vt. 破壞

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